#fronteers14

Petro Salema - Dream big. Think small

Fronteers 2014 | Amsterdam, October 10, 2014

Hoverboards, jetpacks, holograms, and "the next big thing:" none are everyday technologies not because we can't envision them, but because we haven't yet put together the capabilities to make them consumable technologies.

The buzzing, blinking, and beeping atmosphere mediated by our ever-on, ever-connected, and ever-present devices has made it clear that computer technology revolutions will be grounded in making computing more humane (UX). But what the next lifestyle shaping and culture-making product will be is almost impossible to say. It's very hard to invent the future, but it is our job—and within our reach—to enable it. And the key to this is solving smaller problems.

We'll consider how solving small and hard problems is what brings about capabilities,
and it is capabilities—more so than vision—that is the link between our imagination and reality.

Transcript

00:02.860 --> 00:03.750 Petro Salema. 00:19.140 --> 00:23.730 Their pilots were dropping from the sky like fruit flies. 00:23.730 --> 00:25.540 And it was the job of the engineers 00:25.540 --> 00:29.590 to do something to save their lives. 00:29.590 --> 00:32.140 The British Royal Air Force in World War II 00:32.140 --> 00:35.110 were suffering such massive losses of their bombers 00:35.110 --> 00:37.200 that they gathered a team of engineers 00:37.200 --> 00:41.750 on what was essentially a technical rescue mission. 00:41.750 --> 00:45.420 They had a problem, a usability problem. 00:45.420 --> 00:48.320 Is this mic bothering you as much as it's bothering me? 00:48.320 --> 00:48.954 Is it OK? 00:48.954 --> 00:50.370 If it's OK just nod really loudly. 00:50.370 --> 00:54.310 If it's not I'll get some tech to sort me out. 00:54.310 --> 00:56.220 It's OK? 00:56.220 --> 00:57.418 I think it's my coat. 01:00.050 --> 01:02.130 Can we take a moment to just sort me out? 01:02.130 --> 01:03.755 Because it's bothering me a little bit. 01:20.936 --> 01:22.841 I can take off the shirt, it that's OK. 01:22.841 --> 01:24.970 It's all right? 01:24.970 --> 01:26.260 All right, let me-- OK. 01:26.260 --> 01:27.770 I'm going to do a wardrobe change. 01:27.770 --> 01:28.000 OK? 01:28.000 --> 01:28.540 So hang on. 01:35.830 --> 01:39.507 So their bombers were dying in ridiculous numbers. 01:39.507 --> 01:41.465 And the engineers were going to be the ones who 01:41.465 --> 01:42.970 will save their lives. 01:42.970 --> 01:45.470 The RAF gathered their smartest engineers. 01:45.470 --> 01:47.020 And this technical mission was going 01:47.020 --> 01:50.060 to be to solve a usability problem. 01:50.060 --> 01:53.070 You see their bombers, marvelous pieces of engineering 01:53.070 --> 01:55.990 that they were, terrible weapons of destruction 01:55.990 --> 01:59.960 that they were, fantastic pieces of engineering. 01:59.960 --> 02:03.320 But under enemy fire they had crippling security 02:03.320 --> 02:05.640 vulnerability. 02:05.640 --> 02:07.960 And so they called in the engineers. 02:07.960 --> 02:11.650 When your users are dying on your systems, 02:11.650 --> 02:14.250 you've got a usability problem. 02:14.250 --> 02:18.430 So the engineers came in, and these engineers 02:18.430 --> 02:23.020 came up against what is a common restraint of all airplanes. 02:23.020 --> 02:26.160 You see in order to better armor the airplanes, essentially 02:26.160 --> 02:30.530 what they would have to do is add weight, armor. 02:30.530 --> 02:33.210 But the more armor they would add to these airplanes, 02:33.210 --> 02:35.270 the worse they would fly. 02:35.270 --> 02:39.440 And so there was a delicate balance that they had to play. 02:39.440 --> 02:41.180 How much armor were they going to add, 02:41.180 --> 02:43.250 and how would they add this armor in such a way 02:43.250 --> 02:46.414 that the planes were both capable to do their destruction 02:46.414 --> 02:48.330 and able to be prevented from being destroyed? 02:51.400 --> 02:53.980 It wasn't revenue on the balance. 02:53.980 --> 02:56.760 When they lost a user, they lost a countryman. 02:59.650 --> 03:05.010 If they lost this enterprise, if their team failed, 03:05.010 --> 03:09.500 they lost a country, and they lost Europe. 03:09.500 --> 03:12.620 But these engineers, they had a plan. 03:12.620 --> 03:14.860 They had an approach, analytics. 03:17.640 --> 03:20.070 What they did is that they gathered data. 03:20.070 --> 03:23.826 All the planes that came in, they looked at everywhere 03:23.826 --> 03:25.450 where there was flag damage, everywhere 03:25.450 --> 03:27.670 where there was bullet damage, anything 03:27.670 --> 03:30.922 that was wrong with the planes that came back from the front. 03:30.922 --> 03:32.630 And they gathered all this data, and they 03:32.630 --> 03:35.810 did a statistical analysis. 03:35.810 --> 03:39.000 And a pattern began to emerge. 03:39.000 --> 03:41.190 It was obvious where these planes 03:41.190 --> 03:46.250 that were coming back from the war were getting hit the most. 03:46.250 --> 03:47.980 And with the information being so clear 03:47.980 --> 03:51.280 using analytics, the answer and the solution just 03:51.280 --> 03:52.540 answered itself. 03:52.540 --> 03:54.800 It was obvious. 03:54.800 --> 03:58.630 What they had to do is not have to armor the entire airplane. 03:58.630 --> 04:00.420 They didn't have to armor up everything. 04:00.420 --> 04:03.200 What they just needed to do was to cover those areas which 04:03.200 --> 04:06.170 were most susceptible to enemy fire, 04:06.170 --> 04:08.810 and their airplanes would be minimally armored, 04:08.810 --> 04:13.650 but perfectly secure, or at least better secured. 04:13.650 --> 04:16.290 The answer, through analytics, was given to them. 04:16.290 --> 04:19.010 And it was obvious. 04:19.010 --> 04:21.209 It was obvious, and it was dead wrong. 04:23.920 --> 04:26.360 There was a statistician a mathematician on the group, 04:26.360 --> 04:29.390 however, a man by the name of Abraham Wald. 04:29.390 --> 04:31.980 Abraham Wald seeing these exact same figures, 04:31.980 --> 04:34.770 these exact same charts, and exact same data 04:34.770 --> 04:37.770 came to the exact opposite conclusion. 04:37.770 --> 04:39.960 He argued and reasoned like this. 04:39.960 --> 04:44.260 He said, these airplanes made it back from the fight. 04:44.260 --> 04:46.400 That means it doesn't matter how full of holes 04:46.400 --> 04:49.350 these airplanes are, those holes were not 04:49.350 --> 04:52.130 enough to take these things down. 04:52.130 --> 04:54.720 He argued that if you see an airplane wing that 04:54.720 --> 04:57.390 is full of bullets, what that should tell 04:57.390 --> 05:02.420 you is that bullets in an airplane wing are not fatal. 05:02.420 --> 05:03.900 He reasoned thus. 05:03.900 --> 05:07.160 He says, it is exactly those areas in our statistical models 05:07.160 --> 05:10.600 that are pristine that are pure and perfect, 05:10.600 --> 05:13.830 it is those areas of planes which must mean that when 05:13.830 --> 05:16.820 both airplanes were hit in that area 05:16.820 --> 05:18.670 they never made it back home. 05:18.670 --> 05:20.990 And thus, they never entered the statistical model. 05:20.990 --> 05:24.405 It was so counter-intuitive, it just happened to be correct. 05:27.120 --> 05:30.240 What you see at play with these engineers 05:30.240 --> 05:34.270 is something that is called accessibility bias. 05:34.270 --> 05:37.370 Accessibility bias is where the things 05:37.370 --> 05:41.630 that you've experienced in hindsight limit and effect 05:41.630 --> 05:43.530 and set boundaries on the things that you're 05:43.530 --> 05:48.320 able to foresee in the future. 05:48.320 --> 05:52.140 So your hindsight limits your foresight. 05:52.140 --> 05:54.070 Why is this so important? 05:54.070 --> 05:58.640 Well, as engineers, as designers and developers, 05:58.640 --> 06:02.690 our core task is problem solving. 06:02.690 --> 06:03.470 Yes. 06:03.470 --> 06:08.890 Design at its core is problem solving, using form and balance 06:08.890 --> 06:11.420 to bring about a solution. 06:11.420 --> 06:14.580 And we solve problems by asking questions. 06:14.580 --> 06:18.055 An accessibility bias limits the questions you can ask. 06:22.900 --> 06:28.040 You won't get a better answer than the question you can ask. 06:28.040 --> 06:31.670 Innovation happens when you stop looking for answers 06:31.670 --> 06:34.100 to the questions you've been asking, 06:34.100 --> 06:37.230 and you start asking the right questions. 06:37.230 --> 06:40.680 Innovation happens when you stop looking for solutions 06:40.680 --> 06:44.780 to the problems that you've been running in circles about, 06:44.780 --> 06:48.660 and you finally start solving the right problems, 06:48.660 --> 06:51.220 and solve all the things that we have to deal with, 06:51.220 --> 06:52.970 of all the burdens and all the things that 06:52.970 --> 06:55.670 come against this as we're trying to essentially bring 06:55.670 --> 07:00.450 about a future, a user experience. 07:00.450 --> 07:03.610 I think nothing is more limiting, and nothing harder 07:03.610 --> 07:06.190 to overcome than accessibility bias. 07:06.190 --> 07:07.260 Why? 07:07.260 --> 07:10.210 Because you can't escape your experience. 07:10.210 --> 07:12.940 And your experiencing is limiting your perception, 07:12.940 --> 07:16.750 and it's limiting the questions you can ask. 07:16.750 --> 07:21.690 Accessibility bias, you can't ask a better question 07:21.690 --> 07:24.010 than what-- you can't get a better answer 07:24.010 --> 07:26.400 than the question you can ask. 07:26.400 --> 07:30.080 Have you ever wondered why it is that when we think and talk 07:30.080 --> 07:33.020 and hype about the next big thing 07:33.020 --> 07:36.790 that next big thing is usually an extrapolation 07:36.790 --> 07:43.080 or an exaggeration of the last big thing, accessibility bias. 07:43.080 --> 07:45.510 Have you ever considered how it is that the biggest 07:45.510 --> 07:49.040 client, the gorilla in the room, the guy with the loudest voice, 07:49.040 --> 07:54.150 it doesn't matter how awkward, how idiotic that feature 07:54.150 --> 07:58.460 request is, it will somehow find its way in that roadmap, 07:58.460 --> 08:01.110 accessibility bias. 08:01.110 --> 08:03.960 It is those bugs which have the most complaint that 08:03.960 --> 08:06.370 will get the urgent treatment, even if they're not 08:06.370 --> 08:12.960 critical to improving your product, accessibility bias. 08:12.960 --> 08:16.660 I recall our team leader, our CTO at Gentex, 08:16.660 --> 08:19.000 the company I work for. 08:19.000 --> 08:20.390 He once was in a stand-up meeting 08:20.390 --> 08:22.220 which we do every morning. 08:22.220 --> 08:23.490 And he basically told us this. 08:23.490 --> 08:28.840 He said, just because you're not receiving bug reports 08:28.840 --> 08:33.130 in that feature or that product, is no indication 08:33.130 --> 08:36.145 that that product or that feature is working properly. 08:39.970 --> 08:42.140 In the worst case scenario it just 08:42.140 --> 08:44.730 may mean that you built an irrelevant feature. 08:47.920 --> 08:48.960 So we have two roads. 08:51.590 --> 08:56.030 This road is the one that we architected. 08:56.030 --> 08:59.080 We planned, had coffee, argued, bickered, 08:59.080 --> 09:01.312 and we architected and astronauted this road. 09:01.312 --> 09:02.020 We mapped it out. 09:02.020 --> 09:03.160 We paved it. 09:03.160 --> 09:04.910 We paved the way of the future. 09:04.910 --> 09:06.950 Users will walk here and bless us. 09:09.424 --> 09:10.340 This is what they did. 09:13.930 --> 09:18.239 And so we got no complaints about how sucky our road was, 09:18.239 --> 09:20.280 about how horrible it is to walk on our pavement, 09:20.280 --> 09:22.680 because it was like slushy and it was uneven, 09:22.680 --> 09:24.380 and there was things to trip you up. 09:24.380 --> 09:27.027 We got no complaints. 09:27.027 --> 09:28.485 But we built an irrelevant product. 09:31.120 --> 09:32.770 But we're smarter than this. 09:32.770 --> 09:38.670 So what we do in software is we booby-trap everything. 09:38.670 --> 09:40.030 We're in war. 09:40.030 --> 09:42.440 So those engineers will use analytics, 09:42.440 --> 09:44.500 so we can detect when users run errant, 09:44.500 --> 09:46.200 and go doing weird things. 09:46.200 --> 09:48.980 And this way we can discover our product, 09:48.980 --> 09:52.390 rather than try to just invent it. 09:52.390 --> 09:57.260 But we're still subject to our experiences and our biases. 09:57.260 --> 10:00.270 We will be optimizing, arguing, and working 10:00.270 --> 10:05.730 on aligning our architected path with this organic development 10:05.730 --> 10:09.280 that we've been able to discover with data. 10:09.280 --> 10:10.780 And we'll be doing this optimization 10:10.780 --> 10:14.900 until one day we will turn our heads and look to the sky, 10:14.900 --> 10:17.230 and we'll see people flying with jet packs. 10:17.230 --> 10:19.120 And we completely missed that boat. 10:24.440 --> 10:26.910 Analytics in themselves will not save us. 10:26.910 --> 10:30.300 Analytics do not invent the future. 10:30.300 --> 10:33.240 We need more than data. 10:33.240 --> 10:37.610 You see, it's not that we don't see it coming. 10:37.610 --> 10:40.300 It's just that every time innovation really, really 10:40.300 --> 10:45.080 arrives it always seems to catch us off guard. 10:45.080 --> 10:47.360 It's part of the thrill of actually what we do. 10:47.360 --> 10:48.640 We're always being surprised. 10:48.640 --> 10:53.900 It's like, oh innovation in the future just caught up with us. 10:53.900 --> 10:56.790 And it snuck on us by surprise. 10:56.790 --> 10:58.190 Why is that? 10:58.190 --> 11:01.570 Well I think it's because real innovation doesn't happen 11:01.570 --> 11:03.940 in these well-articulated grand visions and dreams 11:03.940 --> 11:05.330 of the future. 11:05.330 --> 11:08.350 It actually happens in the back waters, 11:08.350 --> 11:10.790 in the dark room where the hacker is hacking away 11:10.790 --> 11:12.470 on a dream, and solving what seems 11:12.470 --> 11:14.270 to be like idiotic problems. 11:17.250 --> 11:18.750 So if you want to know, and you want 11:18.750 --> 11:22.800 to be on the crest of the invention of the hoverboard, 11:22.800 --> 11:27.690 don't go to hoverboard fest, or flying machine conference. 11:27.690 --> 11:30.155 Go find the guy who's making the best leaf blower. 11:35.350 --> 11:39.155 We can dream of hover packs, hoverboards, time machines, 11:39.155 --> 11:39.655 holograms. 11:42.480 --> 11:46.200 It's not that we lack a vision of the future. 11:46.200 --> 11:49.370 Innovation happens when we're able to bring capabilities 11:49.370 --> 11:51.310 to bear. 11:51.310 --> 11:55.450 We continue and we must dream big. 11:55.450 --> 11:58.970 But to be practical and to realize a future, 11:58.970 --> 11:59.970 we have to think small. 12:04.990 --> 12:09.380 We all know of a lot of companies, a lot of the titans 12:09.380 --> 12:11.100 who made this consumer technology 12:11.100 --> 12:12.750 world that we live in. 12:12.750 --> 12:14.490 And we all see their sordid history 12:14.490 --> 12:16.384 of all the mistakes and misfortunes 12:16.384 --> 12:17.300 that they left behind. 12:21.110 --> 12:25.130 There are few times in technology revolutions 12:25.130 --> 12:29.590 where something comes that is such a paradigm shifter. 12:29.590 --> 12:33.100 The desktop GUI was one of these moments. 12:33.100 --> 12:36.980 But the story of the desktop GUI is also a story 12:36.980 --> 12:38.850 of Xerox's missed opportunity. 12:38.850 --> 12:40.790 Because it was in Xerox's part where 12:40.790 --> 12:44.560 they invented the desktop GUI that became so prevalent. 12:44.560 --> 12:49.290 And it was the desktop GUI, the desktop system that motif, 12:49.290 --> 12:52.870 which basically was the killer app of the PC revolution. 12:52.870 --> 12:56.280 And it was the desktop which gave birth 12:56.280 --> 12:59.980 to the internet, and the browsers, and the browsers 12:59.980 --> 13:03.070 to the apps. 13:03.070 --> 13:05.960 Xerox had this capability, but dismissed it. 13:05.960 --> 13:09.050 They dismissed the capability as an errant hacker's experiment 13:09.050 --> 13:10.520 in the lab. 13:10.520 --> 13:12.620 And they continued making copiers. 13:12.620 --> 13:16.880 And along came these two nerds, Jobs and Gates, 13:16.880 --> 13:20.140 and they changed the world. 13:20.140 --> 13:23.020 We've got to have big dreams, but we 13:23.020 --> 13:24.410 can't miss those small things. 13:30.910 --> 13:34.980 I don't know how many of you know of DEC. 13:34.980 --> 13:37.850 But they paved the future as well. 13:37.850 --> 13:39.699 But this is a true statement. 13:39.699 --> 13:41.240 This is what the founder of DEC said. 13:41.240 --> 13:44.070 He dismissed PCs. 13:44.070 --> 13:46.170 They saw the capability. 13:46.170 --> 13:48.480 But it didn't fit into their accessibility bias, 13:48.480 --> 13:51.090 into their perception of how things were going to work like. 13:51.090 --> 13:55.440 What they couldn't imagine was how this capability will 13:55.440 --> 13:57.700 affect the user experience. 13:57.700 --> 14:00.800 That is where-- that is where the divide was, 14:00.800 --> 14:01.850 and so they dismissed it. 14:06.090 --> 14:07.990 But don't think that the man was an idiot. 14:11.330 --> 14:14.630 He also had keen insight years later, and into the world 14:14.630 --> 14:16.200 that we'll be living in today. 14:16.200 --> 14:17.980 Now you see this quote by him. 14:17.980 --> 14:20.690 "People will get tired of managing personal computers, 14:20.690 --> 14:25.150 and will want instead terminals, maybe windows." 14:25.150 --> 14:28.200 He was seeing a vision of the future. 14:28.200 --> 14:32.670 You see the DEC conglomerate was making mainframes. 14:32.670 --> 14:34.790 And so that's how they missed the PC revolution. 14:34.790 --> 14:36.452 But here, years later, he's seeing 14:36.452 --> 14:37.660 of this vision of the future. 14:37.660 --> 14:39.510 And he's saying, people will get tired 14:39.510 --> 14:40.881 of these personal computers. 14:40.881 --> 14:41.380 OK. 14:41.380 --> 14:42.259 We missed that boat. 14:42.259 --> 14:44.550 They're going to get tired of these personal computers. 14:44.550 --> 14:46.120 And what they're going to want is these terminals 14:46.120 --> 14:46.870 and these windows. 14:46.870 --> 14:50.530 And we're like, well that's not a-- no-- that's not what we're 14:50.530 --> 14:52.231 doing, terminals and windows. 14:52.231 --> 14:52.730 But, OK. 14:52.730 --> 14:54.521 I'm going to change some words a little bit 14:54.521 --> 14:58.120 here, and see what happens to this sentence. 14:58.120 --> 15:01.040 People will get tired of managing personal computers, 15:01.040 --> 15:02.854 can't carry them around. 15:02.854 --> 15:04.270 You have to reboot them every time 15:04.270 --> 15:06.680 you want to check your email. 15:06.680 --> 15:08.930 Instead they'll want mobile clients. 15:08.930 --> 15:12.140 And their windows to the world will be their browsers. 15:12.140 --> 15:15.800 You see he was able to envision the future. 15:15.800 --> 15:17.960 But there's no way at that time that he would 15:17.960 --> 15:21.490 have a roadmap for the future. 15:21.490 --> 15:23.490 It is this great man who made this quote. 15:23.490 --> 15:28.130 And he said, "the best way to predict 15:28.130 --> 15:34.159 the future is to invent it," Alan Kay, a brilliant man. 15:34.159 --> 15:36.700 There are a few people who can probably get away with a quote 15:36.700 --> 15:36.900 like. 15:36.900 --> 15:39.191 That but this guy invented object-oriented programming, 15:39.191 --> 15:40.890 whether you like it or not. 15:40.890 --> 15:44.570 He's the guy who actually also pioneered the desktop GUI. 15:44.570 --> 15:47.960 I also hear that he's a professional jazz guitarist. 15:47.960 --> 15:49.302 He can lead an orchestra. 15:49.302 --> 15:51.010 And he plays something like a pipe organ. 15:51.010 --> 15:52.700 So he's probably a better version 15:52.700 --> 15:55.594 of a human being than most of us. 15:55.594 --> 15:57.260 And he says, you can predict the future. 15:57.260 --> 15:59.110 You've just got to invent it. 15:59.110 --> 16:02.580 But what I see in history is that these companies invented 16:02.580 --> 16:06.249 these capabilities, and they mispredicted the future. 16:06.249 --> 16:07.290 It's like they missed it. 16:07.290 --> 16:09.230 But they had the capabilities lying there 16:09.230 --> 16:11.520 until hackers and nerds came by, and took it. 16:14.260 --> 16:16.310 We've got to dream big. 16:16.310 --> 16:18.790 But we can't miss the small things. 16:18.790 --> 16:22.360 And so what I would like to say, what I would humbly 16:22.360 --> 16:25.290 challenge us and have you interrogate, 16:25.290 --> 16:29.635 is the notion that it's not our job to invent the future. 16:32.170 --> 16:35.340 That is far beyond your pay grade. 16:35.340 --> 16:41.480 But it is our job, and it is within our grasp to enable it. 16:41.480 --> 16:45.410 We do that by harnessing capabilities, inventing 16:45.410 --> 16:47.370 capabilities on top of capabilities, 16:47.370 --> 16:50.580 discovering capabilities, and using capabilities 16:50.580 --> 16:53.370 and exploiting them to the purpose of developing 16:53.370 --> 16:55.910 the future, future user experience. 16:55.910 --> 16:57.980 Because whenever we're building a user experience 16:57.980 --> 17:00.260 for our future, we're imagining a future 17:00.260 --> 17:01.770 that will be replayed by thousands 17:01.770 --> 17:05.380 and thousands of users, hopefully millions of users. 17:05.380 --> 17:06.790 So we take capabilities. 17:06.790 --> 17:07.990 We look at what is small. 17:07.990 --> 17:10.760 We solve these small problems, and we deliver 17:10.760 --> 17:14.280 them to enable the future. 17:17.079 --> 17:20.525 Inventing the future is beyond our pay grade. 17:23.400 --> 17:26.380 I think a pretty good example of this 17:26.380 --> 17:31.710 is the fruit company in California called Apple. 17:31.710 --> 17:34.970 This is a quote by the late Steve Jobs. 17:34.970 --> 17:36.740 And he basically said early on, he says, 17:36.740 --> 17:39.610 when we came up with these personal computers, 17:39.610 --> 17:40.962 we had to wait on them. 17:40.962 --> 17:42.170 Watts and I we're having fun. 17:42.170 --> 17:43.720 We built these things that we loved. 17:43.720 --> 17:45.520 But we couldn't imagine what people 17:45.520 --> 17:46.890 were using these things for. 17:46.890 --> 17:49.260 We couldn't imagine owning up. 17:49.260 --> 17:51.840 We didn't have a roadmap of the future. 17:51.840 --> 17:56.240 But here we are, we enabled it. 17:56.240 --> 18:00.580 But what he did see, his insight, 18:00.580 --> 18:03.910 he said that he recognized that something special happened 18:03.910 --> 18:05.610 the moment the computer was not being 18:05.610 --> 18:09.450 used by a group of people, but was used in a personal way. 18:09.450 --> 18:12.380 When the computer became a personal computing tool, 18:12.380 --> 18:14.860 he said that he recognized it in that moment something 18:14.860 --> 18:17.390 special happened. 18:17.390 --> 18:21.560 And it was this capability which he built his company around, 18:21.560 --> 18:24.150 and innovated on, and experimented with, 18:24.150 --> 18:25.090 the personal computer. 18:28.180 --> 18:31.296 We dream big, but we don't have a roadmap for the future. 18:31.296 --> 18:33.420 We just have capabilities lying all over the place, 18:33.420 --> 18:35.660 and tools for which we can build better capabilities. 18:35.660 --> 18:37.030 We build these capabilities. 18:37.030 --> 18:39.770 We see what happens. 18:39.770 --> 18:42.634 We enable the future. 18:42.634 --> 18:44.050 So one thing, a couple of things I 18:44.050 --> 18:47.520 just want to get across with my message today. 18:47.520 --> 18:52.680 Number one, the goal of all technical innovation 18:52.680 --> 18:57.030 is always, always, always, always the human experience. 18:57.030 --> 19:00.240 It has been said, computing is not about computers. 19:00.240 --> 19:02.430 Computing is about people. 19:02.430 --> 19:04.550 The end goal is a human experience. 19:04.550 --> 19:06.240 And you've got to bear in mind how 19:06.240 --> 19:10.100 complex the human experience is, especially how complex it 19:10.100 --> 19:10.940 is in group dynamic. 19:15.950 --> 19:20.000 Innovation is about harnessing capabilities. 19:20.000 --> 19:22.280 It is more so about harnessing capabilities 19:22.280 --> 19:25.610 than articulating grand statements about the future. 19:25.610 --> 19:27.150 Dream big. 19:27.150 --> 19:28.110 We must. 19:28.110 --> 19:31.460 Revolutionaries demand dreams. 19:31.460 --> 19:34.765 We need to dream big, but we've gotta think small. 19:40.310 --> 19:44.655 Google's mission statement is to organize 19:44.655 --> 19:48.320 the information of the world, and to make it universally 19:48.320 --> 19:49.370 accessible. 19:49.370 --> 19:50.190 That's a big dream. 19:53.260 --> 19:57.840 How did that dream become a reality? 19:57.840 --> 20:00.150 It was the World Wide Web. 20:00.150 --> 20:02.960 I don't see how Google would have 20:02.960 --> 20:06.020 been able to execute on this mission statement had there 20:06.020 --> 20:09.790 not been a capability to basically essentially do 20:09.790 --> 20:13.960 information organization through crowd-sourcing. 20:13.960 --> 20:18.280 With the internet, the computers were connected. 20:18.280 --> 20:20.350 With the World Wide Web we were given usability 20:20.350 --> 20:23.700 to connect to this internet, and to share information. 20:23.700 --> 20:26.040 And so what Google didn't have to do 20:26.040 --> 20:27.610 is knock on every one of our doors 20:27.610 --> 20:30.470 with their street car parked outside our gates, 20:30.470 --> 20:32.570 asking us for us to share our diaries, 20:32.570 --> 20:34.930 to share our emails, our letters, 20:34.930 --> 20:36.320 to share our company reports. 20:36.320 --> 20:37.200 No. 20:37.200 --> 20:39.750 Because of the World Wide Web, we offer these things up 20:39.750 --> 20:41.100 into the cloud. 20:41.100 --> 20:44.110 And what Google had to do was gather this and organize it, 20:44.110 --> 20:45.805 using computational power. 20:48.840 --> 20:54.580 Who would've road-mapped that a military experiment followed 20:54.580 --> 21:00.680 by scientist and genius, but I would argue small protocols 21:00.680 --> 21:05.930 that he developed in Europe, would enable such 21:05.930 --> 21:09.095 a big dream where the information of the world 21:09.095 --> 21:10.053 can be made accessible? 21:15.980 --> 21:18.140 I want to see a show of hands. 21:18.140 --> 21:21.891 Who here knows of m-pesa? 21:21.891 --> 21:22.390 All right. 21:22.390 --> 21:23.223 I see some hands up. 21:23.223 --> 21:24.140 I see some hands up. 21:24.140 --> 21:24.889 That's good. 21:24.889 --> 21:26.430 I thought I'd see some more hands up. 21:26.430 --> 21:28.760 Well today you'll know a little bit about m-pesa. 21:28.760 --> 21:30.870 My parents traveled to Tanzania, my home country, 21:30.870 --> 21:32.620 and they basically paid for their flights. 21:32.620 --> 21:34.340 They were going all over the country. 21:34.340 --> 21:36.890 And they were just paying for flights and buying things, 21:36.890 --> 21:40.130 not through a bank, not through ATMs, but just 21:40.130 --> 21:42.390 through their mobile phones. 21:42.390 --> 21:46.930 m-pesa is peer-to-peer money transfer. 21:46.930 --> 21:51.020 And it's really, really viral and popular in East Africa. 21:51.020 --> 21:52.510 And now it's going on to the Middle 21:52.510 --> 21:53.551 East and other countries. 21:56.560 --> 22:00.780 m-pesa brings the dream of a cashless society 22:00.780 --> 22:05.420 and peer-to-peer money transactions into a reality. 22:05.420 --> 22:06.760 How did this happen? 22:06.760 --> 22:10.060 What was the road map to this? 22:10.060 --> 22:12.510 It was SMS. 22:12.510 --> 22:15.150 And who would have seen that coming? 22:15.150 --> 22:16.720 m-pesa works with SMS. 22:16.720 --> 22:19.420 So when you exchange money, you're essentially exchanging 22:19.420 --> 22:21.610 information the same way you do SMS's. 22:21.610 --> 22:23.610 What they had discovered, actually, the same way 22:23.610 --> 22:26.840 that you discover a path when you have built a pavement 22:26.840 --> 22:28.420 and you discover a path on the grass, 22:28.420 --> 22:31.530 is that they had discovered that people were actually sharing 22:31.530 --> 22:34.790 with each other their air time. 22:34.790 --> 22:36.980 Air time is expensive in East Africa. 22:36.980 --> 22:38.730 They haven't set up all the infrastructure 22:38.730 --> 22:39.710 and it was expensive. 22:39.710 --> 22:42.030 So people were sharing air time with their less 22:42.030 --> 22:44.027 well-to-do cousins or friends. 22:44.027 --> 22:45.610 And so they saw that there was already 22:45.610 --> 22:50.590 an economy that had developed out of this capability, 22:50.590 --> 22:52.830 a new user experience was happening, 22:52.830 --> 22:54.910 and a whole economy had been formed. 22:54.910 --> 22:56.480 And so they actually, what they did 22:56.480 --> 22:59.710 is they harnessed this economy, and they actually 22:59.710 --> 23:00.552 protocoled it. 23:00.552 --> 23:02.385 And they developed this thing called m-pesa. 23:04.980 --> 23:08.430 This is a grand-- this is kind of like a grand dream. 23:08.430 --> 23:11.970 In the developing world people are doing peer-to-peer money 23:11.970 --> 23:13.470 transfer with their mobile phones. 23:13.470 --> 23:15.510 I'm still waiting for that here. 23:15.510 --> 23:16.790 Don't die on me. 23:16.790 --> 23:17.490 Wake up. 23:23.010 --> 23:26.690 When I was growing up in Tanzania, in high school 23:26.690 --> 23:30.290 that was about the time when cellular telephones came out. 23:30.290 --> 23:34.390 And so some of the rich kids in the school, not I, 23:34.390 --> 23:36.220 had these mobile telephones. 23:36.220 --> 23:38.330 But then after-- in a short period of time, 23:38.330 --> 23:40.140 everyone had mobile telephones. 23:40.140 --> 23:41.746 And something really, really great 23:41.746 --> 23:43.120 happened, something that was just 23:43.120 --> 23:46.320 such an instructive moment for me to experience, 23:46.320 --> 23:48.820 something which we called beeping. 23:48.820 --> 23:50.040 I want another show of hands. 23:50.040 --> 23:52.558 Who knows what beeping is? 23:52.558 --> 23:53.160 What? 23:53.160 --> 23:53.660 OK. 23:53.660 --> 23:56.000 That's interesting. 23:56.000 --> 23:57.420 You guys know what beeping is. 23:57.420 --> 23:59.250 For those who don't know what beeping is, 23:59.250 --> 24:02.125 beeping is hacking the capability out 24:02.125 --> 24:05.290 of-- hacking the heck out of a mobile phone, hacking 24:05.290 --> 24:07.780 the heck out of like the telecom, and the air time, 24:07.780 --> 24:08.510 actually. 24:08.510 --> 24:11.480 What you do with beeping is you do miss-calling 24:11.480 --> 24:13.340 as a way of communicating. 24:13.340 --> 24:16.060 It's kind of like-- you know how Chinese characters are 24:16.060 --> 24:18.410 like dense with meaning? 24:18.410 --> 24:20.830 And beeping is like Morse code. 24:20.830 --> 24:23.270 But each beep is like dense with meaning. 24:23.270 --> 24:25.120 You've got to like decode it based 24:25.120 --> 24:27.660 on your relationship with the person who miss-called you, 24:27.660 --> 24:29.860 and what's going on, and what's your context. 24:29.860 --> 24:32.310 You decode the beep, and you figure out what's going on. 24:32.310 --> 24:33.601 So this is how it would happen. 24:33.601 --> 24:35.430 This is how it would play out. 24:35.430 --> 24:37.992 Me and my friend, we're going to meet up somewhere. 24:37.992 --> 24:39.950 And we all got very little credit on our phone. 24:39.950 --> 24:41.991 We may actually not have any credit on our phone. 24:41.991 --> 24:44.460 Somehow cell phones got cheap, everyone got one. 24:44.460 --> 24:46.220 But air time is still expensive. 24:46.220 --> 24:48.350 So we got these mobile devices with this capability 24:48.350 --> 24:50.727 to basically signal to each other. 24:50.727 --> 24:51.560 But we got no money. 24:51.560 --> 24:52.530 So what are we going to do? 24:52.530 --> 24:53.890 We're going to hack the heck out of this thing. 24:53.890 --> 24:55.510 What we're going to do is when he 24:55.510 --> 24:59.260 arrives there, whoever is first to arrive at our destination, 24:59.260 --> 25:01.237 miss-calls the other guy. 25:01.237 --> 25:03.070 And when the other guy sees the missed call, 25:03.070 --> 25:05.370 in this social context, with this relationship 25:05.370 --> 25:07.892 I have with that guy and in what we're about to do, 25:07.892 --> 25:09.600 I recognize that what this guy is telling 25:09.600 --> 25:10.740 me is he has arrived. 25:10.740 --> 25:12.370 It's only one beep, right? 25:12.370 --> 25:18.260 And so the unofficial protocol is that how I respond, 25:18.260 --> 25:20.960 I send an affirmation, an AK, and that 25:20.960 --> 25:24.770 is a return beep, just one, one return beep. 25:24.770 --> 25:26.930 One return beep signals to this guy 25:26.930 --> 25:28.160 that oh, I got your message. 25:28.160 --> 25:28.820 I'm on the way. 25:28.820 --> 25:31.130 Everything's OK. 25:31.130 --> 25:34.790 If I send two beeps, it means I'm on my way 25:34.790 --> 25:35.980 but I'm running late, man. 25:35.980 --> 25:39.120 So just chill. 25:39.120 --> 25:43.220 If I send three beeps, it means I'm having trouble. 25:43.220 --> 25:44.230 But I can't call you. 25:44.230 --> 25:46.560 So if you've got credit, call me, 25:46.560 --> 25:48.432 or we have to re-plan this thing. 25:59.050 --> 26:02.500 The cellular companies, after a while, 26:02.500 --> 26:05.070 started seeing that these anecdotes were 26:05.070 --> 26:06.456 all over the place. 26:06.456 --> 26:09.080 And so they must have looked at their analytics and their data, 26:09.080 --> 26:12.970 and been thinking Tanzanians, are they so impatient? 26:12.970 --> 26:15.060 They give you like three seconds to pick up? 26:18.340 --> 26:20.530 And so I learned from my friends who were still 26:20.530 --> 26:23.250 back home that what they did is that they have now 26:23.250 --> 26:24.950 commodified this. 26:24.950 --> 26:26.780 So you have to pay even to beep. 26:26.780 --> 26:27.800 It's become a feature. 26:31.070 --> 26:34.460 They did not roadmap this user experience. 26:34.460 --> 26:36.450 They could not envision a user experience 26:36.450 --> 26:38.910 where people invent their own signaling language 26:38.910 --> 26:40.500 using mobile telephones. 26:40.500 --> 26:42.910 You're supposed to speak through our mobile telephones. 26:42.910 --> 26:46.090 Text messaging is a hack in itself. 26:46.090 --> 26:48.780 Beeping, how do you road map that? 26:48.780 --> 26:50.990 How do you predict a society would 26:50.990 --> 26:54.130 develop that kind of frugal way of communicating 26:54.130 --> 26:55.840 on this platform? 26:55.840 --> 26:58.890 All they did is they gave us the capabilities. 26:58.890 --> 27:02.490 We decide what the human experience is like. 27:02.490 --> 27:05.020 They fortunately were able to capitalize on it. 27:05.020 --> 27:06.300 Just one quick short story. 27:06.300 --> 27:11.935 I had these friends, an English guy and a Danish guy, Danish 27:11.935 --> 27:12.960 or Dutch. 27:12.960 --> 27:16.030 And we were together in Tanzania and then we went to university. 27:16.030 --> 27:18.700 And when the World Cup happened, or some English football match, 27:18.700 --> 27:22.000 they still had this-- this culture of beeping one another. 27:22.000 --> 27:23.500 Because they were cheap. 27:23.500 --> 27:27.054 And so when someone scored a goal, 27:27.054 --> 27:29.470 they would beep the other guy, like a kind of way to spite 27:29.470 --> 27:32.420 them, like an elbow to the rib. 27:32.420 --> 27:35.940 But what the other guy would do to spite the other guy back, 27:35.940 --> 27:37.970 is that when they saw a goal happen and it 27:37.970 --> 27:39.520 was their side that got scored on, 27:39.520 --> 27:41.880 they would basically be on the ready with their phone. 27:41.880 --> 27:43.640 And as soon as that guy rang, they 27:43.640 --> 27:46.066 would basically answer to get the guy 27:46.066 --> 27:49.070 to incur international call cost. 27:49.070 --> 27:50.820 So that's where you have a hack on a hack. 27:53.270 --> 27:53.770 All right. 28:02.790 --> 28:07.530 We live in a world that is like never before 28:07.530 --> 28:10.150 mediated by the technology. 28:10.150 --> 28:15.640 This is like never before buzzing, blinking and beeping, 28:15.640 --> 28:20.677 ever on, ever present, and ever connected. 28:20.677 --> 28:22.135 There hasn't been a time like this. 28:25.320 --> 28:29.080 I believe that it will be written in the history books 28:29.080 --> 28:33.110 that it was the 21st century that every company became 28:33.110 --> 28:41.785 a tech company, computers and human beings, user experience. 28:45.400 --> 28:48.110 We no longer do computing in computer rooms. 28:48.110 --> 28:50.080 We do computing all the time. 28:50.080 --> 28:52.020 I'm computing right now with my mobile phone. 28:52.020 --> 28:53.895 It's supposed to be keeping track of my time. 28:53.895 --> 28:56.990 But I forgot to switch it on so, the 10-minute guy? 28:56.990 --> 28:58.040 I got 20 minutes. 28:58.040 --> 28:58.840 Excellent. 28:58.840 --> 29:01.120 All right. 29:01.120 --> 29:03.684 But we're computing all the time. 29:03.684 --> 29:05.350 It's no longer a matter of productivity. 29:08.270 --> 29:09.810 Computing mediate our lifestyles. 29:13.810 --> 29:17.310 And then not only does it mediate our lifestyles, 29:17.310 --> 29:21.030 it's mediating and shaping our culture. 29:21.030 --> 29:23.860 That leads me to ask a couple of questions. 29:23.860 --> 29:26.990 But there's one thing I want to point out first. 29:26.990 --> 29:32.830 If more of our life is being mediated by technology, 29:32.830 --> 29:36.610 what does it mean for those who do not have access 29:36.610 --> 29:38.940 to these capabilities? 29:38.940 --> 29:45.120 What happens to those who by their misfortune 29:45.120 --> 29:50.090 or by physical difficulty or mental handicap, 29:50.090 --> 29:53.730 don't have access to this bounty? 29:53.730 --> 29:56.757 I believe it's one of our-- it's part of our moral duty 29:56.757 --> 29:58.590 to actually bring capabilities and usability 29:58.590 --> 30:01.940 and accessibility in such a way that the most will benefit. 30:01.940 --> 30:06.100 And I think, in part, that is why we are here, to share idea, 30:06.100 --> 30:11.300 to speak into our biases, and hopefully 30:11.300 --> 30:14.140 to bring this thing to more people. 30:14.140 --> 30:16.360 But it also means something else. 30:16.360 --> 30:19.620 Culture, culture is an extremely difficult thing 30:19.620 --> 30:21.350 to put your finger on. 30:21.350 --> 30:23.900 None of us here can pull off Pharrell Williams' hat. 30:23.900 --> 30:27.330 We're not culture makers like that. 30:27.330 --> 30:30.190 Culture is a very difficult thing to put your finger on. 30:30.190 --> 30:33.140 So if you thought it was hard in the past when people 30:33.140 --> 30:36.360 had to walk into computer rooms to predict the future, 30:36.360 --> 30:38.330 how are we supposed to predict culture? 30:38.330 --> 30:42.790 How are we supposed to program culture, codify culture, 30:42.790 --> 30:44.646 algorithm culture? 30:44.646 --> 30:47.020 We're supposed to reason about the technical difficulties 30:47.020 --> 30:49.350 we have with algorithms and programs? 30:49.350 --> 30:51.700 We're supposed to reason now about people's lifestyles? 30:51.700 --> 30:52.199 OK. 30:52.199 --> 30:54.242 Designers, we're already onto this. 30:54.242 --> 30:56.200 Lifestyle and all that sort of stuff, designers 30:56.200 --> 30:58.320 are clued up about this. 30:58.320 --> 31:01.440 But now this is going full stack, engineers and developers 31:01.440 --> 31:02.167 as well. 31:02.167 --> 31:03.750 Not only are we supposed now to reason 31:03.750 --> 31:06.030 about lifestyle in computational terms, 31:06.030 --> 31:08.760 we're supposed to reason about culture in computational terms. 31:08.760 --> 31:11.340 We got memes and LOL-ing, and all manner of texting. 31:14.680 --> 31:17.800 The dream gets bigger. 31:17.800 --> 31:21.010 But it also becomes, in a sense, more fragile. 31:21.010 --> 31:24.070 Because technology mediates so much more of our lives 31:24.070 --> 31:27.380 that rubber is meeting the road so much more often, 31:27.380 --> 31:30.240 and friction becomes felt much more. 31:30.240 --> 31:32.550 If I'm using your piece of software, 31:32.550 --> 31:36.980 your future user experience that you developed, 31:36.980 --> 31:39.210 and this experience is cumbersome, 31:39.210 --> 31:43.390 but I need to use it every hour of my life 31:43.390 --> 31:45.930 that's starts to be a real problem. 31:45.930 --> 31:49.320 So the challenge and the burden of getting it right 31:49.320 --> 31:51.180 is critical. 31:51.180 --> 31:54.580 UX is mission critical. 31:54.580 --> 31:55.950 It is innovation critical. 31:55.950 --> 31:57.530 It is future critical. 31:57.530 --> 32:00.440 Getting the human experience right in computation 32:00.440 --> 32:01.780 is very important. 32:01.780 --> 32:05.060 I can't leave the computer room and escape 32:05.060 --> 32:06.529 your horrible design. 32:06.529 --> 32:07.820 It's in my pocket all the time. 32:16.470 --> 32:20.980 What this does is it makes capabilities not something 32:20.980 --> 32:25.830 that we do so that we can just enable the future. 32:25.830 --> 32:30.065 But it becomes something that we do as a feature in itself. 32:32.600 --> 32:35.910 We no longer-- well, users are no longer interested 32:35.910 --> 32:39.220 in your product or your massive framework 32:39.220 --> 32:41.230 or your application or your applications. 32:41.230 --> 32:44.650 What they're interested in, is a superpower. 32:44.650 --> 32:48.610 When I install that app, or when I download that browser 32:48.610 --> 32:51.610 extension, I'm shopping for a superpower. 32:51.610 --> 32:54.530 I'm shopping for an augmentation to my life, to my lifestyle. 32:58.750 --> 33:00.750 The manner in which I use the technology 33:00.750 --> 33:04.030 and these capabilities, however, is up to me. 33:04.030 --> 33:09.810 And so the job of UX is to fine-tune the capability 33:09.810 --> 33:12.130 and bring it and deliver it to the user 33:12.130 --> 33:16.960 in the most fine-tuned and human-friendly way possible. 33:16.960 --> 33:19.870 It is not our job to bring the user to us, 33:19.870 --> 33:24.330 and have them do time-sharing on our big mainframe program. 33:24.330 --> 33:27.520 What we do is time-sharing within their life. 33:27.520 --> 33:31.360 So my phone knows to dim itself at night. 33:31.360 --> 33:34.480 It knows to ring less loudly at this particular hours 33:34.480 --> 33:35.235 of my day. 33:39.195 --> 33:43.200 It makes it much harder to solve our problems. 33:43.200 --> 33:46.220 But we've got to solve them right. 33:46.220 --> 33:48.990 We see this happening now all over the place. 33:48.990 --> 33:54.880 Apps are fragmenting and focusing on their features. 33:54.880 --> 33:56.819 And we see some of the best apps that we have, 33:56.819 --> 33:58.610 and some of the best-- and some of the best 33:58.610 --> 34:00.870 softwares on the web, are those which 34:00.870 --> 34:04.120 focus on delivering capability. 34:04.120 --> 34:07.520 Dropbox is a fantastic example. 34:07.520 --> 34:12.739 One of the titans of our-- one of the greatest industrialists 34:12.739 --> 34:17.590 of our times, he dismisses Dropbox as a feature, 34:17.590 --> 34:20.065 and not a product, but man what a feature. 34:22.639 --> 34:26.230 It is the capability that I need. 34:26.230 --> 34:30.489 And I will shape my lifestyle. 34:30.489 --> 34:32.389 I don't need a product. 34:32.389 --> 34:35.050 I need a feature. 34:35.050 --> 34:38.810 So we don't build capabilities and harness capabilities only 34:38.810 --> 34:41.790 to invent these big monolithic systems. 34:41.790 --> 34:44.480 Those capabilities are our products. 34:44.480 --> 34:45.550 It is what we're doing. 34:49.150 --> 34:52.420 So I want to close and explain to you a little bit what 34:52.420 --> 34:57.370 my experience has been with our vision of user experience, 34:57.370 --> 34:59.536 and the challenges that we had. 34:59.536 --> 35:01.160 And it's part of the things that shaped 35:01.160 --> 35:04.155 my thinking about this problem. 35:04.155 --> 35:05.780 I've been working for a couple of years 35:05.780 --> 35:09.890 in the esoteric realm of the web called content editing. 35:09.890 --> 35:13.220 Content editing is a hot mess. 35:13.220 --> 35:15.479 Browser vendors, I'm looking at you. 35:20.270 --> 35:23.316 Much of the web is images and text. 35:26.130 --> 35:29.200 But the capabilities to edit those two things together, 35:29.200 --> 35:32.850 to work with those two things together, is horrendous. 35:32.850 --> 35:36.820 But we have a big dream about building capabilities 35:36.820 --> 35:41.180 for people to make great things for the web, 35:41.180 --> 35:45.210 to marry text and images and content in a way that 35:45.210 --> 35:46.610 is really compelling. 35:46.610 --> 35:48.935 You see, images aren't going away. 35:48.935 --> 35:50.380 They're so visceral and powerful, 35:50.380 --> 35:52.360 and say a thousand words. 35:52.360 --> 35:57.240 But text isn't going away either. 35:57.240 --> 35:59.260 Language isn't going away. 35:59.260 --> 36:03.140 Symbolic systems are not going away. 36:03.140 --> 36:07.100 And so our vision, our mission, is to bring capabilities 36:07.100 --> 36:10.630 to the web that will allow people to basically create 36:10.630 --> 36:13.710 editing experiences that will allow people to basically make 36:13.710 --> 36:15.790 great content. 36:15.790 --> 36:17.640 But we had a problem in contenteditable, 36:17.640 --> 36:20.730 because contenteditable, like I said, is a hot mess. 36:20.730 --> 36:23.850 And we spent a lot of time working on this space. 36:23.850 --> 36:28.469 And this year we had a breakthrough. 36:28.469 --> 36:30.510 We were finally able to rethink whether we needed 36:30.510 --> 36:32.003 to use contenteditable, which is a-- who 36:32.003 --> 36:33.253 knows what contenteditable is? 36:33.253 --> 36:34.670 It's actually a-- OK. 36:34.670 --> 36:35.230 Very good. 36:35.230 --> 36:35.870 Thank you. 36:35.870 --> 36:39.550 It's actually-- its an attribute in HTML 36:39.550 --> 36:42.320 which allows you to basically transform 36:42.320 --> 36:45.900 your element into something that is writable, not just readable. 36:50.330 --> 36:52.270 Wake up. 36:52.270 --> 36:54.540 Stay there. 36:54.540 --> 36:55.040 OK. 36:55.040 --> 36:56.206 So we had this breakthrough. 36:56.206 --> 36:58.469 But it requires us to really think small. 36:58.469 --> 37:00.510 And the thing that we had the breakthrough with-- 37:00.510 --> 37:04.530 and this is just a small example of capabilities 37:04.530 --> 37:06.620 coming in unexpected places. 37:06.620 --> 37:09.490 The breakthrough came with the caret positioning. 37:09.490 --> 37:12.030 And you see here I've got this wonderful, 37:12.030 --> 37:17.280 not blinking but dancing, caret, just to bring home a point. 37:17.280 --> 37:21.600 We wanted basically to lift the capabilities of content 37:21.600 --> 37:23.910 editing, and bring them to the user space, 37:23.910 --> 37:26.160 so that we can build a better API. 37:26.160 --> 37:28.240 So that we can build capabilities, 37:28.240 --> 37:30.440 so that people can build their own editors. 37:30.440 --> 37:32.780 One of the big problems we had-- and for a long time 37:32.780 --> 37:35.409 we thought it was impossible to escape contenteditable, 37:35.409 --> 37:36.950 and we thought we were trapped in it. 37:36.950 --> 37:38.570 Because we could not have control 37:38.570 --> 37:41.040 of the selection and the caret. 37:41.040 --> 37:43.410 We looked at Google Docs with envy, 37:43.410 --> 37:48.807 because they were able to style the caret how they wanted. 37:48.807 --> 37:50.140 They threw away contenteditable. 37:50.140 --> 37:52.970 And for Google Docs they're using the Kix engine. 37:52.970 --> 37:54.710 They can style a caret, color it. 37:54.710 --> 37:58.100 They can have several cursors on the screen, with people's names 37:58.100 --> 37:59.340 on it. 37:59.340 --> 38:03.480 And it also gave them great usability capability. 38:03.480 --> 38:06.400 Because if, for example, you're in an italic font, 38:06.400 --> 38:08.920 you can slant the caret to give hint to the user 38:08.920 --> 38:10.322 where they're about to edit. 38:10.322 --> 38:12.530 Or if they've got command overrides, when-- when they 38:12.530 --> 38:14.717 press Command bold, you can make the caret thicker. 38:14.717 --> 38:16.550 So that they know that the next time they're 38:16.550 --> 38:17.560 going to type characters, they're 38:17.560 --> 38:18.727 all going to come out thick. 38:18.727 --> 38:20.351 And so we looked at-- we looked at that 38:20.351 --> 38:22.710 and we said, why don't the browsers give us capabilities 38:22.710 --> 38:23.847 so we can use them? 38:23.847 --> 38:25.930 And so we thought it would be so great if we could 38:25.930 --> 38:27.110 do what they do, and just have a div, 38:27.110 --> 38:29.470 and basically write an API that will allow everyone 38:29.470 --> 38:31.564 to basically build their own editor, 38:31.564 --> 38:32.980 and they can use their own carets, 38:32.980 --> 38:34.380 and they can have as many as they want on the screen, 38:34.380 --> 38:36.220 and they can to telepointing and all that. 38:36.220 --> 38:37.790 And we thought it was impossible. 38:37.790 --> 38:40.100 In fact, I had a dream of having, writing 38:40.100 --> 38:42.710 WYSIWYG Vim editor in the browser. 38:42.710 --> 38:44.569 I love Vim. 38:44.569 --> 38:46.360 And I thought the greatest thing I could do 38:46.360 --> 38:49.190 is write this WYSIWYG Vim editing command-like 38:49.190 --> 38:50.595 thing on the browser. 38:50.595 --> 38:51.720 But it would be impossible. 38:51.720 --> 38:54.220 Because I didn't have this control with carets. 38:54.220 --> 38:56.410 I could go into all of that, but basically 38:56.410 --> 38:57.850 caret positioning very difficult. 38:57.850 --> 38:59.090 But we had a breakthrough. 38:59.090 --> 39:02.830 And it came when we discovered some really, really weird APIs 39:02.830 --> 39:05.429 in the browser, just hidden in there, 39:05.429 --> 39:06.720 really, really hidden in there. 39:06.720 --> 39:08.000 And they were like awful. 39:08.000 --> 39:10.990 Like they were-- each one was buggie, like in a weird way. 39:10.990 --> 39:13.280 But cobbling these together, we were 39:13.280 --> 39:14.527 able to actually solve this. 39:14.527 --> 39:16.860 And we were able to basically get rid of contenteditable 39:16.860 --> 39:20.330 altogether by being able to control the caret positioning, 39:20.330 --> 39:21.500 all of it. 39:21.500 --> 39:24.410 So we can do WYSIWYG editing, everything-- everything 39:24.410 --> 39:26.260 is in user space in JavaScript. 39:26.260 --> 39:29.980 And this is now delivered as a library to users. 39:29.980 --> 39:32.780 And so what we thought is that instead of just building 39:32.780 --> 39:35.350 an editor, what we want to do is build capabilities, 39:35.350 --> 39:38.350 and build the tools that others can build editors and editing 39:38.350 --> 39:40.050 experiences on. 39:40.050 --> 39:42.190 We don't invent the future. 39:42.190 --> 39:46.810 We do have a big dream, a dream where the web is writable, 39:46.810 --> 39:49.950 a dream where the web is rich, and a dream where creating 39:49.950 --> 39:53.540 content for the web is natural. 39:53.540 --> 39:55.690 But we don't have a roadmap for that future. 39:55.690 --> 39:58.510 What we now do have is just the capability. 39:58.510 --> 40:00.327 And what we're doing, is as fast as we can, 40:00.327 --> 40:02.160 is we want to put the capability right there 40:02.160 --> 40:03.451 and see what people do with it. 40:06.790 --> 40:09.822 We can't invent the future, but we can enable it. 40:16.230 --> 40:24.790 Usability, accessibility, capability; these 40:24.790 --> 40:26.551 are key in user experience. 40:29.260 --> 40:36.820 But it is the capability that affords us the other two. 40:36.820 --> 40:41.080 It is capability that gives us breakthrough in accessibility. 40:41.080 --> 40:44.670 It is capability that short-circuits 40:44.670 --> 40:48.340 our accessibility bias, and our perception bias, 40:48.340 --> 40:51.485 and allows people to enable the future. 40:54.170 --> 40:57.070 As I was sharing these ideas with a colleague at work, 40:57.070 --> 40:59.720 I was just talking about and reasoning this with him, 40:59.720 --> 41:02.100 and he just had a great comment at the end. 41:02.100 --> 41:03.840 He looked at me, and he said, Petro 41:03.840 --> 41:05.480 I know exactly what you're saying. 41:05.480 --> 41:08.490 You're saying, don't start the resolution. 41:08.490 --> 41:10.550 Enable the resolution to start. 41:10.550 --> 41:13.370 And I was like, awesome. 41:13.370 --> 41:18.840 So shout out to Christopher Sugnig. 41:18.840 --> 41:23.080 Don't start a revolution, but harness capabilities, 41:23.080 --> 41:28.230 develop capabilities, ship capabilities, 41:28.230 --> 41:31.210 and enable the revolution to start. 41:31.210 --> 41:32.280 Dream big. 41:32.280 --> 41:34.330 Think small. 41:34.330 --> 41:35.210 Thank you, guys. 41:48.750 --> 41:52.240 Wow, come over to the chill lounge for the last time. 41:52.240 --> 41:54.660 I'm going to miss this place. 41:54.660 --> 41:55.990 It's been lovely. 41:55.990 --> 41:57.120 (petro salema) I'm leaving death on the screen. 41:57.120 --> 41:57.620 Hang on. 42:00.326 --> 42:02.190 Don't leave death on the screen. 42:02.190 --> 42:04.370 Well I thought it was really interesting 42:04.370 --> 42:08.376 that we opened the conference yesterday with Hayden telling 42:08.376 --> 42:10.000 us that the important thing to remember 42:10.000 --> 42:11.200 is that we're all going to die. 42:11.200 --> 42:13.130 And you closed the conference with death as well. 42:13.130 --> 42:15.505 So if that's-- that's something we can all take away from 42:15.505 --> 42:17.409 the event. 42:17.409 --> 42:19.200 That was absolutely incredible, by the way. 42:19.200 --> 42:21.270 And I feel-- I feel like I can't really 42:21.270 --> 42:23.190 do it justice with questions. 42:23.190 --> 42:26.205 What do you feel about the ES6 Promises API? 42:30.150 --> 42:33.980 No, seriously though-- is there-- is there actually-- 42:33.980 --> 42:36.250 how much value is there in innovation? 42:36.250 --> 42:39.930 I mean take your Xerox example, or even the iPhone. 42:39.930 --> 42:42.180 When the iPhones hit the scene, everyone thought, wow. 42:42.180 --> 42:44.170 This touchscreen is incredible. 42:44.170 --> 42:46.220 But touchscreen wasn't new. 42:46.220 --> 42:49.835 Like, it had been around for ages, just not done very well, 42:49.835 --> 42:51.210 and same with like Windows, who's 42:51.210 --> 42:55.240 taken what Xerox did and just made it better. 42:55.240 --> 42:58.996 What's-- is there-- is there value in trying to innovate 42:58.996 --> 43:01.370 wildly, or is better to look at the things that have kind 43:01.370 --> 43:04.750 of not quite got there, and just take that the extra mile? 43:04.750 --> 43:06.390 I think both. 43:06.390 --> 43:11.190 I recall reading that a lot of the consumer technologies 43:11.190 --> 43:12.839 that we actually-- the foundation 43:12.839 --> 43:14.380 of a lot of the consumer technologies 43:14.380 --> 43:17.310 that we use today, a lot of that core technology 43:17.310 --> 43:19.750 actually came out from a project, a military project 43:19.750 --> 43:22.120 in America during I think World War II, 43:22.120 --> 43:23.770 where the government just invested 43:23.770 --> 43:24.900 tons and tons of money. 43:24.900 --> 43:27.230 And for like years nothing came out of that. 43:27.230 --> 43:30.916 And these guys were literally just doing sci-fi stuff. 43:30.916 --> 43:32.290 But sooner or later, they came up 43:32.290 --> 43:34.170 with things-- innovations in radar 43:34.170 --> 43:36.310 and in all these other things. 43:36.310 --> 43:38.150 And actually Silicon Valley was born out 43:38.150 --> 43:41.251 of that sort of-- that sort of experimentation. 43:41.251 --> 43:43.250 And those things actually did lay the groundwork 43:43.250 --> 43:45.270 for a lot of the things that we built on top. 43:45.270 --> 43:48.480 So there is definitely value in wild innovation. 43:48.480 --> 43:52.040 But what actually happens is that oftentimes it's 43:52.040 --> 43:54.390 the hackers that have a breakthrough. 43:54.390 --> 43:59.260 But it is the mainstream or the-- those 43:59.260 --> 44:02.350 who wear suits and are more representable, you know, 44:02.350 --> 44:03.574 who dismiss it. 44:03.574 --> 44:05.240 The breakthrough, I think, that happened 44:05.240 --> 44:06.959 with the iPhone was not in-- was not 44:06.959 --> 44:08.250 necessarily in the touchscreen. 44:08.250 --> 44:10.860 Of course they had-- they really fine-tuned it. 44:10.860 --> 44:12.510 They really did id really well. 44:12.510 --> 44:16.850 But what they did is that they took multi-touch, and married 44:16.850 --> 44:20.320 it with a really, really fantastic user interface. 44:20.320 --> 44:22.430 And so they made it very usable. 44:22.430 --> 44:24.540 At the end, it made the human being-- 44:24.540 --> 44:26.150 it empowered the human being. 44:26.150 --> 44:27.150 It wasn't like, oh yeah. 44:27.150 --> 44:28.770 This is an incredible capability. 44:28.770 --> 44:30.644 But we'll need to train you like an astronaut 44:30.644 --> 44:31.880 before you can use it. 44:31.880 --> 44:34.610 And so on the one hand, wild innovation is-- 44:34.610 --> 44:35.680 is really great. 44:35.680 --> 44:39.821 But it is important to find a-- basically a practical way where 44:39.821 --> 44:42.070 you can take that innovation, and really just ship it. 44:42.070 --> 44:43.560 Bring it to a human being in a way 44:43.560 --> 44:45.030 that is actually manageable. 44:45.030 --> 44:47.940 Don't shoot a rocket at them, and tell them to eat it. 44:47.940 --> 44:51.530 I guess-- sort of a historical example would be the laser. 44:51.530 --> 44:54.710 Like some scientists invented the laser. 44:54.710 --> 44:55.210 Look, look. 44:55.210 --> 44:56.365 We invented the laser. 44:56.365 --> 44:57.690 Well, what does it do? 45:00.262 --> 45:01.720 And it wasn't until many year later 45:01.720 --> 45:04.190 that we saw all of the actual, I guess, 45:04.190 --> 45:06.320 products being built with that in mind. 45:06.320 --> 45:08.390 What are we seeing that happen with now? 45:08.390 --> 45:14.650 I guess-- I guess the Oculus, I guess-- is that? 45:14.650 --> 45:17.319 Are we seeing VR sort of being done correctly now? 45:17.319 --> 45:18.860 Or are we extra steps away from that? 45:18.860 --> 45:20.590 What else is almost there? 45:20.590 --> 45:25.670 Well, I actually think-- I don't know. 45:25.670 --> 45:26.320 We don't know. 45:26.320 --> 45:27.361 I think that's the point. 45:27.361 --> 45:28.430 We really don't know. 45:28.430 --> 45:33.330 But I think our duty is to build things which we can actually 45:33.330 --> 45:37.430 get to users, and not to dismiss them. 45:37.430 --> 45:38.360 I don't know. 45:38.360 --> 45:41.080 The thing is that the future always catches up to us, 45:41.080 --> 45:42.900 and it just does a peek-a-boo on us. 45:42.900 --> 45:44.450 So we'll be looking, Oculus, we're 45:44.450 --> 45:45.080 saying we're nearly there. 45:45.080 --> 45:45.871 We're nearly there. 45:45.871 --> 45:47.630 But somehow I just keep puking. 45:47.630 --> 45:51.762 And then someone-- and then someone comes in and says, 45:51.762 --> 45:52.970 you know what you're missing. 45:52.970 --> 45:56.220 You forgot to squeeze a lemon on top of-- on top of the device. 45:56.220 --> 45:57.830 And all of sudden it cures it. 45:57.830 --> 45:58.820 And we're like what? 45:58.820 --> 46:00.070 And that's the way it happens. 46:00.070 --> 46:01.260 So I don't know. 46:01.260 --> 46:03.960 But this is the part of the thrill of what we're doing. 46:03.960 --> 46:06.030 I think what we need to focus on is 46:06.030 --> 46:08.610 delivering these capabilities, and not just hoping 46:08.610 --> 46:11.050 to build this massive Superdome, where we then 46:11.050 --> 46:14.354 will control the whole virtual reality experience, 46:14.354 --> 46:15.270 but give it to people. 46:15.270 --> 46:16.770 And give to developers so that they can actually 46:16.770 --> 46:18.070 build something with it. 46:18.070 --> 46:19.320 Give something that's smaller. 46:19.320 --> 46:21.361 Because you don't know how virtual reality-- what 46:21.361 --> 46:23.760 virtual reality will be used for, medicine, shopping; 46:23.760 --> 46:25.050 we don't know these things. 46:25.050 --> 46:26.930 I suppose-- when you were talking 46:26.930 --> 46:29.580 about accessibility bias. 46:29.580 --> 46:32.700 I think that sci-fi movies are a great example of that. 46:32.700 --> 46:35.049 I mean you were looking at "Back to the Future." 46:35.049 --> 46:36.590 Someone went, what's the future have? 46:36.590 --> 46:38.780 It's got a skateboard, but without wheels, right? 46:38.780 --> 46:39.821 That's the closest thing. 46:39.821 --> 46:40.410 That's right. 46:40.410 --> 46:41.820 I forgot that. 46:41.820 --> 46:43.887 A great example was "Minority Report." 46:43.887 --> 46:45.720 And it was something that there for a while, 46:45.720 --> 46:47.500 the interfaces were amazing. 46:47.500 --> 46:50.630 Because you can just control things with gestures as long as 46:50.630 --> 46:52.440 you put on some gloves. 46:52.440 --> 46:54.270 And then Microsoft released the Connect. 46:54.270 --> 46:57.130 Like you do not need the gloves. 46:57.130 --> 46:59.780 What kind of element of UX do you 46:59.780 --> 47:01.720 think is tying us down currently? 47:01.720 --> 47:05.260 What bits of legacy are holding us back? 47:05.260 --> 47:07.750 Oh, good question. 47:07.750 --> 47:09.620 Well you know that "The Minority Report" 47:09.620 --> 47:10.870 thing didn't work, right? 47:10.870 --> 47:12.120 I actually tried this at home. 47:12.120 --> 47:13.780 I actually tried to build my own thing. 47:13.780 --> 47:15.238 And I got that whole thing to work. 47:15.238 --> 47:17.050 I put these colored tabs on my fingers. 47:17.050 --> 47:17.800 Because I love UX. 47:17.800 --> 47:18.510 And I was just doing all things. 47:18.510 --> 47:19.180 I could control. 47:19.180 --> 47:20.140 I could do double-click. 47:20.140 --> 47:21.560 But do you know what happens when you do that 47:21.560 --> 47:22.740 for like five minutes? 47:22.740 --> 47:24.329 Gorilla arms. 47:24.329 --> 47:26.120 You know, you can't do the whole Tom Cruise 47:26.120 --> 47:27.953 thing where he had a cut every five minutes, 47:27.953 --> 47:30.280 and hat is dusted off, and he had a drink. 47:30.280 --> 47:31.940 So that doesn't work. 47:31.940 --> 47:34.102 But-- but exactly, that's accessibility bias. 47:34.102 --> 47:35.310 We envision all these things. 47:35.310 --> 47:37.350 But to get to really work for a human being 47:37.350 --> 47:39.900 is really difficult. 47:39.900 --> 47:42.290 What are the things that are holding us back? 47:42.290 --> 47:44.977 You know, I don't want to make a political statement. 47:44.977 --> 47:47.310 But I've been really, really interrogating this thought, 47:47.310 --> 47:48.268 and I've been thinking. 47:50.452 --> 47:52.660 The mobile revolution has brought us a lot of things. 47:52.660 --> 47:53.870 It's actually a really significant thing 47:53.870 --> 47:54.830 that happened. 47:54.830 --> 47:57.450 Computing is in our pocket. 47:57.450 --> 48:03.920 But I really see that there is a tension, and perhaps a problem, 48:03.920 --> 48:06.340 where we've lost some of the openness of the web. 48:06.340 --> 48:09.910 Some of the maybe-- I don't know-- flexibility of it. 48:09.910 --> 48:13.130 I mean I got into this thing because I was finally-- 48:13.130 --> 48:16.081 we had these great programmers at school in Tanzania. 48:16.081 --> 48:17.330 But they thought I was a jerk. 48:17.330 --> 48:19.330 So they would never let me-- I was a little kid. 48:19.330 --> 48:22.890 And I was like, just show me what this awesome equation is. 48:22.890 --> 48:25.110 How do your-- how do harness these powers? 48:25.110 --> 48:26.360 And they just brushed me away. 48:26.360 --> 48:28.776 And then they made these awesome games on their computers. 48:28.776 --> 48:31.921 But when I do view source that was it for me. 48:31.921 --> 48:34.420 And that was like the blue pill or the red pill or whatever, 48:34.420 --> 48:36.503 in the Morpheus where the lightning bolt happened, 48:36.503 --> 48:37.700 and I went one way. 48:37.700 --> 48:39.550 And here I am. 48:39.550 --> 48:42.280 And with an open web, we had a lot-- 48:42.280 --> 48:45.090 we have a lot of opportunity for us 48:45.090 --> 48:48.910 to basically take what we need from the native system, 48:48.910 --> 48:50.320 and build on top of it. 48:50.320 --> 48:51.930 But I feel-- and the way I've said 48:51.930 --> 48:55.440 it is that it feels like mobile is actually like a padded cell. 48:55.440 --> 48:57.990 You know, it's really-- It's really tricked out 48:57.990 --> 48:59.280 with awesome things. 48:59.280 --> 49:01.050 But you're kind of trapped in there. 49:01.050 --> 49:03.320 And it's very cumbersome to develop for it. 49:03.320 --> 49:06.880 And it's brought us really far. 49:06.880 --> 49:11.080 And it's even spoken into the web and how we build software. 49:11.080 --> 49:12.990 But I really wonder whether it will 49:12.990 --> 49:15.350 allow us to innovate as vigorous as we 49:15.350 --> 49:16.780 were able to do on the web. 49:16.780 --> 49:21.050 So it could be that there is a curse in that blessing. 49:21.050 --> 49:23.250 I think-- especially sort of going back 49:23.250 --> 49:27.020 to "The Minority Report" thing, the idea of the interface not 49:27.020 --> 49:30.860 quite working, due to sort of stress on your arms. 49:30.860 --> 49:33.760 I remember I was-- I had appendicitis, 49:33.760 --> 49:37.180 and I went to hospital when was I think 13-14 years old. 49:37.180 --> 49:40.350 And my friend loaned me his Game Boy. 49:40.350 --> 49:43.160 But being in a hospital bed and playing Tetris, 49:43.160 --> 49:45.190 and I remember I could only get to level nine 49:45.190 --> 49:47.350 before it would just slowly hit me in the face. 49:47.350 --> 49:51.236 Because I had no blood left in my arms. 49:51.236 --> 49:52.360 Let's talk about Windows 8. 49:52.360 --> 49:56.080 I mean they tried some pretty incredible stuff 49:56.080 --> 49:57.400 in terms of UX innovation. 49:57.400 --> 49:59.400 Like, it was probably the most radical change 49:59.400 --> 50:03.320 we've seen from a mainstream OS as far as, I guess, 50:03.320 --> 50:08.200 until Windows XP or Windows 95 even. 50:08.200 --> 50:09.610 What did they do wrong? 50:09.610 --> 50:12.070 Or is it just a matter of time before we 50:12.070 --> 50:14.770 realize they were right? 50:14.770 --> 50:17.310 Another good question. 50:17.310 --> 50:18.920 I don't know. 50:18.920 --> 50:23.540 But I think the verdict that came out 50:23.540 --> 50:25.995 was it just surprised people in the wrong way. 50:25.995 --> 50:27.120 And it really surprised me. 50:27.120 --> 50:28.060 I did use Windows 8. 50:28.060 --> 50:29.768 And I was trying to find out how to quit. 50:29.768 --> 50:30.940 And I'm not like nube. 50:30.940 --> 50:31.650 OK? 50:31.650 --> 50:35.250 And I was using control alt delete as like-- as a default 50:35.250 --> 50:36.960 way of quitting. 50:36.960 --> 50:39.080 And so something there is not right. 50:39.080 --> 50:39.600 You know? 50:39.600 --> 50:41.860 Somehow you didn't serve the human 50:41.860 --> 50:45.380 when you forced him to basically pull out the hacker on him. 50:45.380 --> 50:49.030 So I think it's where you marry the technology 50:49.030 --> 50:50.260 with human beings. 50:50.260 --> 50:53.050 It's not just about making it, you know, clean design 50:53.050 --> 50:56.530 and thinking, and astronauting-- astronauting a system. 50:56.530 --> 50:59.210 Eventually it's really got to work with human beings. 50:59.210 --> 51:01.650 I wonder if you want to do something as radical 51:01.650 --> 51:04.060 as that, like what Windows 8 tried to do. 51:04.060 --> 51:06.330 Maybe they should have taken more of like the Facebook 51:06.330 --> 51:08.639 approach, where they-- they change a feature. 51:08.639 --> 51:10.180 And everyone goes, I don't like this. 51:10.180 --> 51:11.600 And they're like, you'll get used to it. 51:11.600 --> 51:13.230 And they just keep pushing the platform like that. 51:13.230 --> 51:14.110 They do do that. 51:14.110 --> 51:15.020 They do do that. 51:15.020 --> 51:17.860 I think what they-- I think ultimately 51:17.860 --> 51:21.279 when we use computers for the features. 51:21.279 --> 51:23.070 And so we don't really-- I'm not interested 51:23.070 --> 51:25.047 in the whole operating system as such. 51:25.047 --> 51:26.630 I'm really interested in the programs. 51:26.630 --> 51:28.090 For example, I have a Mac there. 51:28.090 --> 51:30.910 But the thing I use it for mostly is for the browsing 51:30.910 --> 51:32.125 and for Vim. 51:32.125 --> 51:34.780 OK, those are the things I use my program most for. 51:34.780 --> 51:38.780 And I can do that any, any UNIX system. 51:38.780 --> 51:43.320 I think you've got to work on highlighting the features, 51:43.320 --> 51:46.120 and bring-- and building great-- just great capabilities 51:46.120 --> 51:48.580 in the system, and not so much on astronauting 51:48.580 --> 51:49.829 the whole system in itself. 51:49.829 --> 51:50.370 I don't know. 51:50.370 --> 51:52.320 Maybe less is more. 51:52.320 --> 51:54.930 Less things flying around at you, and less changes there, 51:54.930 --> 51:57.270 and just building greater products within the system. 51:57.270 --> 51:57.811 I don't know. 51:57.811 --> 51:59.500 But that's just a guess. 51:59.500 --> 52:00.825 That's absolutely amazing. 52:00.825 --> 52:04.340 A huge round of applause for Petro Salema.